How to Cite Three Examples in Korean
Conjunctions are essential in linking words or phrases together and in making complex sentences. In Korean, there seems to be more than one way to express them. Say for example the conjunction and. There is 와, 과, (이)랑, 하고, 고, and 그리고 and they are not even interchangeable. We’ve got to follow some rules. Although 와 and 과 are sister words, they are not bound to substitute each other. I mean we can say 미녀와 야수 (beauty and the beast) but not 미녀과 야수.
In English, we do not only use and to link two words or phrases together. Even when citing three or more examples, it has to be there but we don’t use it in every single word as in ‘My favorite girl groups are A-pink and G-Friend and I.O.I. and Twice’. That just sounds too wordy and inconvenient to move a lot of facial muscles. A single and just before the last element is enough. In Korean, there are at least two ways to this in a form of algebra style patterns.
X하고, Y하고, Z(이다)
I like IU, Lee Hi, and Jung Seung Hwan.
저는 아이유하고 이하이하고 정승환을 좋아해요.
I have been to Vietnam, Cambodia, and Thailand.
저는 베트남하고 캄보디아하고 태국에 가봤어요.
I live with my mom, sister, and brother.
저는 엄마하고 언니하고 오빠랑 같이 살아요.
I need money, a travel bag, and a passport.
나는 돈하고 여행 가방하고 여권이 필요해.
X, Y, 그리고 Z (이다)
I can speak Korean, Chinese, and Japanese.
저는 한국어, 중국어, 그리고 일본어를 할 줄 알아요.
I want a dog, a cat, and a book for Christmas.
크리스마스날에 개, 고양이, 그리고 책 한 권을 받고 싶어요.
All you need is a house, a job, and a girlfriend.
네가 필요한 건 집, 직업, 그리고 여자친구일 뿐이야.
I have been to India, Israel, and Poland.
나는 인도, 이스라엘, 그리고 폴란드에 가 봤어요.
The first one is more common in spoken language and -하고 can be replaced with –(이)랑. -와 and –과 sounds unnatural in this case. The second one is more common in written language.